Secretul finlandezilor

By | 12 februarie, 2011

Nu este de mirare că sistemul educativ finlandez este cel mai evoluat şi mai bun din lume.

Finlanda este, în acelaşi timp, şi una din ţările cu cele mai ridicate niveluri de trai din lume. În urma perioadei de gravă recesiune economică din anii ’90, guvernul a hotărât să dedice fonduri importante educaţiei, cercetării şi tehnologiei. Rezultatul: în mai puţin de 10 ani, Finlanda a trecut pe primele locuri din lume ca bunăstare socială şi bogăţie.

Exemplul Nokia. La început, un sat cu o singură fabrică, de cizme de cauciuc. Apoi, o fabrică de televizoare. În sfârşit, pe baza alianţei dintre patronat şi sindicate, se mizează pe telefonia celulară. Astăzi sunt lideri mondiali, înaintea Germaniei, Japoniei şi Statelor Unite.

De ce este atât de  obişnuit ca în Finlanda, un adolescent normal să termine primele 8 clase cu medii excelente, vorbind o engleză perfectă şi citind o carte pe săptămână?

07:45 – Saili (15 ani) aşteaptă autobuzul urban care îl va lăsa la poarta şcolii (nu există autobuze şcolare). Autobuzul trece la fiecare 5 minute. Finlandezii încearcă să-i facă pe fiii lor să fie independenţi de mici. Pe foarte puţini dintre ei, părinţii lor îi duc cu maşina până la şcoală. Biletul este subvenţionat de către municipalitate. Conform legii, niciun elev nu poate locui la mai mult de 5 km de şcoală. În exterior, instalaţiile şcolii dau o impresie spartană. Niciun muc de ţigară, nicio hârtie pe jos, niciun grafitti pe ziduri.

09:15 – Orele de 45 de minute. Finlandezii mizează pe studiile de limbă maternă, matematică şi engleză. 75% dintre materii sunt comune în toată ţara. Restul îl alege şcoala, de acord cu profesorii, părinţii şi elevii. Orele sunt scurte, intense şi, mai ales, foarte participative. În interiorul şcolii, curăţenia este şi mai evidentă. Totul pare recent dat în folosinţă. Pe bănci şi pupitre nu sunt semne, şi nu se scrijeleşte nimic. Şcoala este publică şi, bineînteles, gratuită, dar cu instalaţii demne de un colegiu „scump” din Spania. Sălile de cursuri dispun de ecrane gigant de plasmă cu TV în circuit închis, acvariu de 200 de litri cu peşti tropicali, bucătărie completă, dispozitive audiovizuale, aer condiţionat, multe plante. Fiecare doi elevi au câte un calculator. O duzină de maşini de cusut în sala de croitorie, aparate de sudură, scule de tâmplărie, schiuri… O sală de sport acoperită, un auditoriu pentru orele de teatru şi o sală de mese cu autoservire. Cărţile sunt gratuite, materialul şcolar e gratuit, mâncarea e gratuită.

12:00 – Mâncare caldă, nutritivă şi gratuită. Saili are o jumătate de oră pentru prânz, la restaurantul şcolii. Legea finlandeză obligă ca meniul să fie gratuit, nutritiv, şi cu multe feluri de salate şi fructe. Se bea apă sau lapte. Costurile le plăteşte municipalitatea fiecărui oraş. Dacă orele se prelungesc până după amiază, şcoala are obligaţia de a oferi o gustare elevilor.

16:05 – Înapoi acasă, Saili  joacă hockey cu fratele lui mai mic. Nu există delincvenţă, străzile sunt sigure. Când se lasă seara, Saili şi fratele lui, care au învăţat să gateasca la şcoală, pregătesc cina pentru părinţii lor, dacă aceştia întârzie la serviciu.

18:30 – Cina şi sauna (aceasta, de 3 ori pe săptămână) sunt momentele în care familia se află împreună. Se conversează mult, mai ales despre proiectele copiilor, dorinţele, progresele şi nevoile lor. Dar în aceeaşi măsură, se fac şi planuri de vacanţă pentru toată familia, în comun.

20:15 – Temele şi la culcare. Copiii finlandezi au foarte multe teme pentru acasă, deşi Saili le termină rapid, într-o oră sau două, pentru că de-abia aşteaptă să se urce în pat şi să citeasca Harry Potter în engleză. Pentru Saili, şcoala este ca un serviciu.

– „Dacă un copil doreşte să studieze, poate să ajunga medic sau judecător sau inginer, chiar dacă familia sa este una săracă”.

– Educaţia fiecărui copil costă statul finlandez 200.000 de euro, de la grădiniţă până la absolvirea unei universităţi. „Sunt banii cel mai bine folosiţi din impozitele noastre”.

Studentii plătesc doar cărţile şi mâncarea (2.50 euro la restaurantul facultăţii). Apoi, statul îi ajută să se emancipeze dându-le subvenţii pentru închirierea unei locuinţe şi primul salariu.

Elevii au un respect total faţă de profesori, şi se vede în orice moment politeţea în relaţiile dintre ei. Nu poartă uniforme, dar sunt întotdeauna simplu şi corect îmbrăcaţi şi pieptănaţi.

Într-o şcoală din centrul capitalei Helsinki, sau dincolo de Cercul Polar, nivelul este acelaşi. Sistemul educaţional nu este elitist şi nu urmăreşte producerea de genii, ci atingerea unui nivel general mediu cât mai înalt.

Temele sunt sfinte. Şi este foarte rău văzut ca un elev să copieze, chiar şi de către ceilalţi elevi. Este de neconceput ca un elev să scoată o fiţuică la un examen. Cel care ar face-o ar fi izolat de către restul elevilor. „De ce să rişti, când poţi să studiezi?” Pe aceeaşi linie, ca adulţi, nu-şi vor imagina ce este evaziunea fiscală. Nu e de mirare că Finlanda se află în fruntea ţărilor cu cele mai ridicate statistici de transparenţă şi cea mai scăzută corupţie publică.

– Preşedinta Finlandei, Tarja Halonen, licenţiată în Drept şi profesoară: „Când îi cert pe studenţii mei, le spun că irosesc banii contribuabililor”.

Nu există repetenţi, deşi nu există decât o singură oportunitate de a lua un examen, „pentru simplul motiv că viaţa însăşi nu se trăieşte decât o singură dată”. Se studiază până când se ia examenul, dar promovarea în anul următor este automată.

„Ziua de lucru” a lui Saili este intensă, de la 8 până la 3. Orele sunt însă scurte, de 45 de minute. Una dintre recreaţii se petrece obligatoriu afară, în aer liber. Se stimulează raţionamentul critic înaintea memorizării mecanice. Orele sunt relaxate, cum ar fi cursurile de dansuri de salon, teatru, artă digitală, coafură, arte marţiale, hockey, schi de tură, gastronomie, primul ajutor, dulgherie, mecanică sau muzică. Elevii cântă la vioară, chitară electrică sau la ce preferă. Şi, încă odată, se încurajează gândirea critică şi se discută.

– „Saili încă nu s-a hotărât ce vrea să facă mai încolo. Chimie, medicină veterinară sau creaţie de jocuri video. Îl întreb dacă este fericit. Fără să clipească, îmi răspunde că da.”

de Carlos Manuel Sánchez

Ar fi util pentru toţi românii să citească acest articol, dar cred că cel mai important ar fi să ajungă şi sub ochii domnilor Traian Băsescu, Emil Boc şi, de ce nu, ai domnului Sorin Oprescu, Primarul general al Capitalei.

Primit pe e-mail.

7 păreri la “Secretul finlandezilor

  1. DeeDee

    De cand m-am intors am tot incercat sa trag de mine sa scriu despre cat de bine e acolo. Desi mi se pare pe alocuri exagerat textul, e in mare parte adevarat. Sistemul e impecabil.
    Dar, ca sa rezum cat mai multe intr-un singur exemplu, pot spune ca pe strazi cresc pomi fructiferi de care nu se atinge nimeni. Cad fructele pe jos si acolo raman.
    Sunt si multe neajunsuri, ca tot oameni sunt si ei, de exemplu tare multi (in special tineri si minori) le cam trag la masea. Dar cei care nu au astfel de vicii sunt extraordinari. Nici cu fetele nu m-as mandri. Nu ma leg de cum arata, ca poate o fi chestiune de gust, dar nu cred ca am intalnit macar una care sa nu fi ragait ori la masa, ori in timpul cursurilor sau chiar pe strada. Iar baietii se uita in… gura lor. Majoritatea cuplurilor sunt inegale, cu rolurile mult inversate.
    Dar in rest, da, e o tara super, civilizata, iar somajul (din cate stiu) e de peste 500 de euro.
    DeeDee´s last blog post ..Statul sunt eu!

  2. bogdan

    „The secret of the Finns”, by Carlos Manuel Sánchez

    A few weeks ago I spent my sainted wife a few copies of a report by Carlos Manuel Sánchez XLSemanal for the magazine, thinking it might be interesting reading. I think you may also interest you, to not be forgotten and invite reflection, here it is.

    THE SECRET OF THE FINNISH

    24 hours with a youth of 15 who triumphed in Pisa

    Why Finland is usual in a teenage normalito Secondary end with excellent grades, speaking perfect English and reading a book a week, and here very few got anything remotely similar? We have traveled the country top-ranked by the Pisa report to find out.

    I present to Saili Sipilä. Is 15. He lives with his parents and two brothers in Espoo, a city of 360,000 inhabitants on the outskirts of Helsinki. I flew 4,000 miles to get there. Why? For two reasons: because I am a journalist and I have a son the same age. As a journalist, I know why Saili normalito Finnish teenager finishing high school with excellent grades, speaking perfect English and reading a book a week. Typical for a Finn. As a parent, I know if it is inevitable that my son, Manuel, a teenager normalito, finish their compulsory education approved by the hair, broken four words in English and without the slightest interest in reading. Typical for Spanish. Would it have been different if he was born in Finland? What comparisons between the Finnish and Spanish education I can do as a journalist? What lessons I can learn as a parent?

    Review the results in the warm air of the latest PISA, a triennial review that measures the abilities of students 15 years from 57 countries in science, math and reading. 375,000 students participated. In Spain, nearly 20,000 students from 686 secondary schools and colleges sprouts. Here are the notes. Science: Finland, 1st, 563 points. Spain, 31 th, 488 points. If approved it marks the average of the OECD countries (491 points), we have the first hold. Mathematics: Finland, 2 nd, 548 points, just one of China Taipei. Spain, 31 th, 480, and four in the developed country average. Second insufficient. Reading: Finland, 2 nd (547), behind South Korea. Spain, 35 th (461), also stars in the worst decline in reading comprehension in OECD countries (485) since the last report. Our children do not understand what they read. The fourth line of any text are lost. Very poor.

    Three avocados in the three Rs. What do we do? „We punish the wall facing the students, parents, teachers, authorities at all? Germany harvested gourds like three years ago and the shock was so capitalized politicians put the batteries and this year his students have passed with flying colors. Here, the government blames Franco (the poor education of parents of children difficult.) In addition, the party is on neighborhoods, read by Regions. The Rioja can get breast: are the small group of head. The Andalusians should be thinking in recovery: in mates beats them to Azerbaijan.

    Taxi to Espoo. It is seven in the morning and still dark. Neither will. Do not see the sun during my stay in Finland. Overcast night and closed at three in the afternoon. At this time of year is a twilight country and its 5.3 million people obsessed with light candles, candles and lamps. Alms of light. I come home from Sipilä time to be invited to the family breakfast. That is unusual, because everyone tends to have a snack on their own, but yesterday (6 December) was the Independence Day and the occasion merits. I’m surprised Saili has no bridge, because the holiday falls on Thursday. My son bonded four days of vacation thanks to the viaduct of the Constitution. In Finland, if a school does bridge (the schools have autonomy to make these decisions) before requiring students to leave a little later each day until classes have been lost.

    I was barefoot, leave the shoes in the hall and talk with Sipilä in socks while realize the coffee, bagels, juice, berries and cheese with jam Lapp. Seppo, father, a theologian and makes a living translating the Bible. Master a dozen languages, including Aramaic, Coptic and Arabic classical. Leena’s mother is a nurse and works at a hospital. Mikael, the older brother is 18 and wants to study drama at college, but recognizes that the chances of missing the cut at the first are scarce. Joel, the youngest, aged 12, is mentally disabled and attends a special school. The homestead is a middle-class duplex in the center of Espoo. What’s ‘urban’ has to be qualified. A spruce forest is adjacent to the house. „We moved here a year and a half. The air is very pure. ” Espoo is Finland’s second largest city in population and the highest percentage of student population in a country where 34 percent of adults have graduated from college. „There is little crime. Our children can walk at night in peace, „says the father. And Saili apostille in a pristine English: „Finland is safe. Or tsunamis, or earthquakes … I like living here. ” I explain that I grew up in the street. And that is something that has been lost in Spain, at least in big cities. That children can play outside without supervision.

    Quarter to eight. Time to put on shoes and exit path of the respective occupations. Saili take the city bus (no school buses). The bill subsidizes the municipality. By law, no student can live more than five miles from school. Could walk, a walk of twenty minutes, but sleet and rain do not fancy. Saili has motorcycle and bicycle, as most of their compis, but few challenge the cold at this time. Outside, the school facilities Spartan Saarnilaakson give an impression, except for grass sport fields that surround it. At the entrance is not to scores of students rushing the first cigarette of the morning, as in the Spanish institutes. Not a cigarette or a piece or a painting. „This is not dirty, nor snow, ‘says the photographer.

    Inside, stands out even more cleaning. No doodling on desks or in toilets. Everything looks brand new. Saarnilaakson is a public school, as 97 percent of Finnish schools, unlike Spain, where 35 percent are private. Of course it is free. But the equipment is an expensive school in our country. The classrooms have a TV with giant plasma screen, 200-liter aquarium with goldfish, kitchen sink, audiovisual, air conditioning, many plants. A computer for every two students. A dozen sewing machines in the sewing class, welding equipment, woodworking tools, skis … An indoor gymnasium, an auditorium for theater classes and a self-service dining. All in perfect magazine. Textbooks are free (200 euros how hurt I have to pay each September!), School supplies for free, the food is free. It does not seem too appetizing and deny students, but eat it. City Hall will cost 65 cents each menu: a hot meal, milk and fruit. So generously gives me the long teeth. And when Kari Kajalainen, professor of mathematics, he explains that if a child wants to study, can be judge or doctor or engineer, which is proposed, if he tries, though his family is poor, wear face of disbelief. „The education of every Finn will cost 200,000 euros to the state, from entering the nursery until leaving university with its title. Is money better spent on our taxes. The country’s president, Tarja Halonen, law degree and comes from a humble working-class family. „When I scold my students, I say you are wasting taxpayers’ money.” And another teacher, Päivi Ketola, tells me that the students only have to pay for books and food (2.50 euros in the cafeteria of the school). The state helps to emancipate with subsidies for rental housing and pay. The whole system is mounted so that the Finns used to being independent from it and leave little to live on her own at age 18.

    But back to Saili, who has sounded the bell (the notes of a ballad on the piano by Erik Satie) and into class. Attends grade 9, the equivalent of 4 of the ESO in Spain. In Saarnilaakson school is 400 pupils and 40 teachers, doctor, social worker, psychologist and even a dentist. And the ratio is less than twenty students per class (in Finland, by law, there can be no more than 24). In the class my son is 34. Saili fellow are Formica, at least at first sight. And in the ideology of the school, in addition to European civilization and multiculturalism (there are classes in history of Islam or Catholicism, but the population is predominantly Lutheran), becomes an obsessive focus on good manners. I was amazed at the awe they have for teachers. „Yes, we are respected and valued by society. Teaching is a profession of prestige which aspire only the best. And not enough to be very good in your area. Please note also know when to transmit your knowledge. But respect for what you want students every day. In 20 seconds you can lose, „says Mati Karkkainen, science teacher in the staff room, very cozy: a piano, a tray of chocolates, steaming coffee. Teachers have a good salary in comparison with the Spanish, though some complain. Rocío not, of course. This teaches Spanish in Madrid. ‘Recovery of 1,800 euros for 15 hours per week. The system provides no incentive to work harder. They prefer to spread the workload so that there is unemployment. How? Greatly increasing taxes on those earning more. I only keep 10 percent. But a doctor who earns 5,000 euros withheld half. You also have the right to stop life. Would have to think about it much to return to Spain. ”

    Eye, Finnish children do not like cole. Saili, which brings outstanding, speedily, he considers it „too easy.” His companions, less bright, recognize that you have to work too. And Päivi Junkkari, an English professor, recalls his adolescence as a stage ungrateful lot of sacrifice. „Students do not come to school to have tremendous fun. It’s a job. But they know that everyone has equal opportunities. Never mind going to school in downtown Helsinki or in a village in the Arctic. All have the same level. ” Kari Kajainen nods. „We focus on that most students are very competent. That the average level is high. It is an elite education. We prefer that everyone get approved and remarkable, that student enrollment has not a priority. And above all, when we see that someone has problems, then assign a special teacher. Have extra classes. We are very attentive and not let it be delayed. ”

    The duties are sacred. And it’s improper for someone to copy, even the students themselves. Somebody throw a steak is unthinkable. „In our culture are very important two values: honesty and work,” says Päivi Junkkari. It is no coincidence that Finland also head of the statistics of public transparency and less corruption. Kari says another peculiarity Kajainen Nordic. No repeaters. I say that in Spain the 43 percent of secondary students had ever repeated a grade. And my son, who always saves the end, you have countless opportunities to pass each course and, even then, they often stay a couple for September. Kajainen put in astonishment. „We only have one chance to pass an examination for the same reason that you only live life once. And we must seize it. If you fail, you get an extra hour in class until you show that you know and if not, go to school in summer, but the promotion is automatic. ”

    Where tighten the nuts? „Certainly in the teaching of language. We are the world’s top science and second in math, but the biggest challenge of teaching mathematics is to make students understand what they read, the problem statement. So the key is to read. And it is very important foreign language teaching. Finnish is a minority language. Students also study Swedish and English mandatory. And German, French or Italian as electives. But they have a great advantage. The films and foreign television series are not bent. All passed with subtitles. The children have grown used to hearing other languages ​​and also acquire reading skills. You have to read subtitles quickly to avoid losing the thread of the program „, says Yrjö-Koskinen Tuija English teacher. I envy the fluidity with which everyone speaks the language of Shakespeare in the class of Sailu. And even get around in a few words of Spanish as Los Serrano is the fashion series.

    Saili The day is intensive, 8 am to 3 pm. But the classes are very short: 45 minutes counted wrong. There is a mandatory outdoor recreation (teens are huddled at the entrance to the patio because it’s cold) and a half hour break for lunch. The entire schedule is peppered with short breaks that make the day bearable. Fresh finish. They are not overwhelmed with a mountain of material. The bags are light. It encourages critical thinking rather than memorization. Classes are relaxed, such as ballroom dancing, theater, digital art, hairdressing, martial arts, ice hockey, skiing, cooking! (Mikael Saili and his brother learned to cook at school and at home preparing dinner when you touch them). Also first aid, carpentry, welding or music. Students play the violin, electric guitar and other instruments, according to their preferences. And above all, it encourages critical thinking. Are invited to discuss. The Spanish system marginalizes debate and oral expression. The student passively take notes, yawning.

    Saili come home, play a little hockey and doing homework. „It takes one to two hours. Then care for my brother Joel and cook if no one else at home. At seven o’clock we dined. I connect to the Messenger for a while if my father is working on the computer. Or play video games and strategic role. Then, I lie and I’m reading until eleven. My favorite books are the novels of Jules Verne and all of Harry Potter. The last one I will read in English. ”

    Finland boasts the highest rate of reading books and newspapers in Europe. Three times a week the family took a sauna at home. „We do it together. It’s where we discuss the concerns and projects, where planning a vacation. Always looking for the sun. We went to Madeira, Paris and Tunis, „says Leena, his mother. Saili still not clear what he wants to be more. „Chemical, veterinary or game designer.” I wonder if she’s happy. And I answered yes without blinking.

    Carlos Manuel Sanchez, XLSemanal, December 23, 2007.

  3. Octavian

    Frumos articol, foarte de acord, doar cu textul asta ati mai exagerat: „Astăzi sunt lideri mondiali, înaintea Germaniei, Japoniei şi Statelor Unite.”
    Nokia mai are de invatat de la Apple de exemplu in ce priveste tehnologia. Nu intru in detalii aici dar se pare ca balanta inclina spre apple din 2009

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